2019-05-30 09:16 广东人事考试网 来源：广东银行招聘网
The term investment portfolio conjures up visions of the truly rich-the Rockefellers, the Wal Mart Waltons, Bill Gates. But today, everyone-from the Philadelphia firefighter, his part time receptionist wife and their three children, to the single Los Angeles lawyer starting out on his own-needs a portfolio.
A portfolio is simply a collection of financial assets. It may include real estate, rare stamps and coins, precious metals and even artworks. But those are for people with expertise. What most of us need to know about are stocks, bonds and cash (including such cash equivalents as money market funds).
How do you decide what part of your portfolio should go to each of the big three? Begin by understanding that stocks pay higher returns but are riskier, bonds and cash pay lower returns but are less risky.
Research by Ibbotson Associates, for example, shows that large company stocks, on average, have returned 11.2 percent annually since 1926. Over the same period, by comparison, bonds have returned an annual average of 5.3 percent and cash, 3.8 percent.
But short term risk is another matter. In 1974, a one year $1000 investment in the stock market would have declined to $735.
With bonds, there are two kinds of risk: that the borrower won't pay you back and that the money you'll get won't be worth very much. The U.S. government stands behind treasury bonds, so the credit risk is almost nil. But the inflation risk remains. Say you buy a $1000 bond maturing in ten years. If inflation averages about seven percent over that time, then the $1000 you receive at maturity can only buy $500 worth of today's goods.
With cash, the inflation risk is lower, since over a long period you can keep rolling over your CDs every year (or more often). If inflation rises, interest rates rise to compensate.
As a result, the single most important rule in building a portfolio is this: If you don't need the money for a long time, then put it into stocks. If you need it soon, put it into bonds and cash.
1.This passage is intended to give advice on ____.
A. how to avoid inflation risks
B. what kinds of bonds to buy
C. how to get rich by investing in stock market
D. how to become richer by spreading the risk
2.The author mentions such millionaires as the Rockefellers and Bill Gates to show that ____.
A. they are examples for us on our road to wealth
B. a portfolio is essential to financial success
C. they are really rich people
D. they started out on their own
【答案】D。第一段最后一句话，“But today，...， starting out on his own needs a portfolio.”这是讲的今天每个人都可以根据自己的需要进行证券投资;推到前面一句，那么前面提及的百万富翁也都是根据自己的需要开始证券投资而致富的。A“他们是我们迈向致富之路的榜样”，不具体，没有说明如何致富;B“证券投资对于经济成功很关键”，这句话本身是正确的，但与第一段表达的意思不一致;C“他们确实很富裕”，也不是第一段所想要表达的意思。D“他们是从自己开始做起的”，这正是第一段所要表达的意思，即这些百万富翁是从自己做起开始致富的，而现在每个人都可以这样做，紧接着引入下面的投资指南。
3.Which of the following statements will the author support?( )
A. Everybody can get rich with some financial assets.
B. The credit risk for treasury bonds is extremely high.
C. It's no use trying to know the advantages of stocks, bonds and cash.
D. Everybody should realize the importance of distribution of their financial assets.
【答案】D。这类题应在理解文章的基础上，着重比较四个选项，采取排除法。A“只要有一些财产，每个人都可以致富”，凭常识判断这句话本身就不对，更与作者想要介绍投资渠道的必要性和方法相悖;B“购买国债的信誉风险极高”，这句话与“The U.S. government stands behind Treasury bonds, so the credit risk is almost nil.”意思完全相反;C“了解股票、债券和现金的优势并无用处”，这与作者的观点相反;D“每个人都应该意识到金融财产重新分配的重要性。”这正是第一段作者所说的"每个人都可以根据自己的需要采用不同的投资方式致富"的前提。故选D。
4.The word "returns" in paragraph three can be best replaced by “____.”
A. returning journeys
【答案】B。该词本身的意思是“回来，回报”，再看句子“stocks pay higher returns but are more risky.”是说股票有更高的回报，但风险更大;我们凭常识判断，股票的回报就是“赚钱，利润”。比较四个选项，B，profits(利润)正确。
5.The author of the passage points out that ____.
A. keeping cash is the only way to avoid risks
B. the longer you own a stock, the more you lost
C. the high rate of profit and high rate of risk coexist in stocks
D. the best way to accumulate wealth is by investing in stocks
【答案】C。“作者指出”可以是文章中直接提到的，也可以是作者的言外之意，要结合文章判断四个选项本身是否正确。A“保留现金是避免风险的唯一方式”，作者鼓励合理投资，显然这不是作者意思;B“你持有股票越久，你损失越大”这句话本身有误，文章中也没有提及;C“高利润和高风险在股票市场中同时存在”，这正是第三段中“stocks pay higher returns but are more risky.”意思，所以正确;D“积累财富最好的方式是投资股票”，作者在文章最后明确指出“如果你长期不需要用钱，就投资股票;如果你短期要用，就投资债券和现金。”所以该项也不正确。